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7th Grade Science Unit 2 : Life Science http://science.howstuffworks.com/animal-camouflage2.htm http://www.1biology.50megs.com/anteriorskeleton.htm http://www.ucfv.bc.ca/biology/terry/111/mendel3.jpg © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Unit 2: Life Science

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7th Grade Science

Unit 2 : Life Science

http://science.howstuffworks.com/animal-camouflage2.htm

http://www.1biology.50megs.com/anteriorskeleton.htm

http://www.ucfv.bc.ca/biology/terry/111/mendel3.jpg

© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade


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Unit 2: Life Science

Chapter 9: Introduction to the Human Body

Section 1: Body Organization

Section 2-4: Body System Interactions

Unit 2 : Chapters 7,8,9,10,14


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Unit : 2 Life Science

Chapter 10: Mendel and Heredity

Section 1: Mendel and His Peas

Section 2: Introducing Meiosis

Section 3: Evolution

Chapter 14: Animals and Behavior

Section 1: What is an Animal?

Section 2: Animal Behavior

Section 3: Living Together

Unit 2 : Chapters 7,8,9,10,14


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Introduction to the Human Body

What Do You Think?

Why is water an important part of homeostasis?

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Introduction to the Human Body

  • Remember from Chapter 8 that homeostasis is the bodies way of having a stable internal environment.

  • In order for all of the systems of our body to work together, we must maintain homeostasis.

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Let’s Review!

  • 1 -

    Describe how bones help your body maintain a stable internal condition while you live in a changing external environment.

http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=skeletal+system/v=2/SID=e/l=IVR/SIG=11sghop8u/EXP=1130873051/*-http%3A//www.fihm.com/html/syl/syl_10.html

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Answer

  • Bone support your body, store and release minerals, and enable your muscles to move the body. Some bones also make blood cells.

  • All of these things help maintain homeostasis.

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Introduction to the Human Body

Systems of the Body and their Functions

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Introduction to the Human Body

Systems of the Body and their Functions

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Introduction to the Human Body

Systems of the Body and their Functions

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Interactions of the Human Body

Websites to visit:

An interactive tour of all of the body systems.

Interactive Human Body

Kids Health: "My body"

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1


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Introduction to the Human Body

Your bones are machines!

  • You may not think of bones as simple machines, but they are.

  • What simple machines would your bones act as?

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

  • Bones function as levers!

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

What Do You Think?

How do our organ systems work together?

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

How are organ systems interrelated?

  • All of the organ systems rely on each other for our whole body to work.

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

How are organ systems interrelated?

  • An example is that your muscular system needs your skeletal system, so it will have bones to support the muscles. If we did not have bones to hold up our muscles, we would be a big blob on the ground!

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

How are organ systems interrelated?

  • Our cardiovascular system relies on the respiratory system to oxygenate the blood.

  • All of our systems rely on the integumentary system to hold our organs in place.

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

As a group at your table. Describe in your notes how each of these systems rely on each other.

  • The cardiovascular and nervous system.

  • The digestive and muscular system.

  • The skeletal and nervous system.

  • The urinary and muscular system.

  • The respiratory and nervous system.

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Let’s Review

  • 1 -

    Why would the muscular system need the skeletal system?

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

  • The muscles need the bones to help them stand up. Without the bones, our muscles would be a big blob on the ground!

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Introduction to the Human Body

Pre-AP Website

http://www.texashste.com/html/APHS.HTM

Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4


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Mendel and His Peas

What Do You Think?

Some of your science class has brown eyes, some blue eyes, some hazel eyes. Where do people get these different traits?

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Vocabulary Chapter 10

  • Heredity- the passing of traits from parent to offspring.

  • Self-pollinate- A plant is often able to pollinate by itself because it contains both the male and female reproductive structures. This only requires 1 parent.

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

3. True-breeding- all of the offspring will have the same trait as the parent when self-pollinated

  • First-generation- the very first set of offspring from two parents

  • Dominanttrait- the trait observed when at least one dominant allele for a characteristic is inherited

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

6. Recessivetrait- a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited

  • Genes- a segment of DNA that carries hereditary instructions and is passed from parent to offspring

  • Alleles- multiple forms of the same gene

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

  • Genotype- an organisms inherited combination of alleles

    10. Phenotype- an organisms inherited appearance

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Gregor Mendel

  • Gregor Mendel, born in 1822, is named the “Father of Genetics”.

http://www.pitt.edu/~biohome/Dept/Frame/pisumprize.htm

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Gregor Mendel

  • Mendel began doing experiments with garden peas. He studied the shape of the seeds, how tall the plants grew to be, as well as the color of the flowers produced.

http://www.fieldmuseum.org/exhibits/traveling_mendel.htm

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Gregor Mendel

  • Mendel crossed flowers that were true-breeding for each characteristic.

  • He crossed a purple flowered plant with a white flowered plant.

http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/KH_lecture_images/Mendel/Mendel.html

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

PurpleParent

Gregor Mendel

  • He created a first-generation of plants that all had purple flowers.

  • Where did the white color go??

White Parent

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

PurpleParent

  • Mendel took two of his four first generation purple flowered plants and crossed them together.

  • He then got three purple plants, and one white flowered plant.

Purple Parent

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Gregor Mendel

  • Mendel noticed in the first generation, all of the white flowers seemed to disappear. He called this a recessive trait. The white color faded into the background at first. It then showed back up as he pollinated the flowers again.

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Gregor Mendel

  • The color (purple) that seemed to mask over the recessive color was named the dominant trait.

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

Gregor Mendel

  • Mendel was responsible for figuring out that each plant carried two sets of instructions for each characteristic (one from the “mom” and one from the “dad”).

  • Like many scientists, his work was not accepted until after his death.

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Let’s Review

- 1 -

1. If you crossed a true-breeding black rabbit with a true-breeding white rabbit, all of the offspring would be black. Which trait is dominant in rabbits: black fur or white fur?

2. Which trait is recessive?

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Answer

Black Rabbit

  • The trait for black fur is dominant over the trait for white fur. The white fur trait is recessive.

White Rabbit

http://www.buckeyevalleyfarms.freeservers.com/photo.html

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1


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Mendel and His Peas

What Do You Think?

What is the difference between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction?

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2


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Mendel and His Peas

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2


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Let’s Review!

- 1 -

Which kind of reproduction results in offspring that are different from the parents- sexual or asexual reproduction?

Explain why.

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2


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Answer

Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are different from the parents. In sexual reproduction, two parent cells join together to form a new individual who has his or her own combination of genes.

Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2


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Mendel and His Peas

What Do You Think?

How do mutations relate to DNA and genetics?

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Evolution

  • Many scientists believe that changes in the plants and animal species on earth can be explained by evolution.

  • The theory of evolution is the process by which populations accumulate inherited changes over time.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Mutations and Natural Selection

  • According to the theory of evolution, two processes are necessary for populations to change over time. These are mutations and natural selection.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Mutations

  • In order for a population to change, genes must be able to change.

  • Genes are made of DNA.

  • DNA is made of 4 parts, called nucleotides.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Mutations cont…

  • The order of the nucleotides that are put together determines what characteristics you will receive from your parents.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Mutations cont…

  • Changes in the type or order in which these bases appear are known as mutations.

  • Mutations can be harmful, helpful, or not change an individual at all.

http://www.wolflodge.org/visibiliti/prophecy/three%20legged%20frog.jpg

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Click below to see a video on mutations

http://www5.unitedstreaming.com/index.cfm

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Natural Selection

  • Natural selection is a word that Charles Darwin made very popular.

http://www.darwin.pan.pl/img/darwin.jpg

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Natural Selection

  • According to Darwin’s theory, natural selection says that:

    - organisms that are better able to surviveand reproduce in an environment are more likely to pass their traits on to future generations.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Natural Selection

Natural selection can be divided

into four steps:

  • Overproduction

  • Genetic Variation

  • Struggle to Survive

  • Successful Reproduction

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

  • Overproduction

  • More individuals are born than will become adults.

  • Not all of these frog eggs will become adults.

http://www.davidbjack.com/011113_Frog_on_eggs.jpg

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

2.Genetic Variation

  • The individuals in a population are not exactly the same.

  • Each has its own set of traits, such as size, color, and the ability to find food.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

2.Genetic Variation

  • Some traits make an individual more likely to survive and reproduce.

  • Other traits make survival and reproduction less likely.

http://www.knowlton.clara.net/family/Albinism/Albino_lionmale_s.jpg

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

3.Struggle to Survive

  • An environment might not be able to support all of the individuals born.

  • Also, many individuals are killed by other organisms.

  • Only some of the individuals in a population become adults and reproduce.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

4. Successful Reproduction

  • The organisms that survive and reproduce have traits that are carried on by their many offspring.

  • This makes the “good” traits more dominant in the populations of individuals.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Let’s Review!

- 1 -

How are the feathers of peacocks and the bright flowers of some plants related to successful reproduction?

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/kids/2004/05/images/peacock-big.jpg

http://www.mooseyscountrygarden.com/gardening-articles/colour-bright-pink-flowers.jpg

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Answer

  • The feathers of peacocks attract mates. The bright coloring of some flowers attracts pollinators. Both of these traits increase the chances of successful reproduction.

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Mendel and His Peas

Websites to Visit

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/teachers/

Adaptations

Toothpick Fish Activity

Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

What Do You Think?

What is the difference between vertebrates and invertebrates?

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

  • The Animal Kingdom consists of both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  • A vertebrate is an animal that has a skull and a backbone.

  • An invertebrate is an animal without a backbone.

  • Less than 5% of known animal species are vertebrates!

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

There are 5 characteristics shared among ALL animals.

  • Animals have many cells.

    - All animals are multicellular or made of many cells.

Cheeks cells come from a multicellular animal…you!

http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/~dwilson/Images%20of%20cells2/thumbnails/Cheek%20cells.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

Continued…

  • Animals have many cells.

    - Animal cells are eukaryotic, which means they have a nucleus.

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/microarray/biology_intro_files/cell.jpe

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

Continued…

  • Animals have many cells.

    - Animal cells do not have cell walls, they are surrounded only by a cell membrane.

Cell Membrane

http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/cellMembrane.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

  • Animals usually reproduce by sexual reproduction.

    - Animal sex cells (the egg and sperm) join together.

    - The cell divides and eventually becomes an embryo.

http://www.sptimes.com/News/112001/photos/pulse-embryo.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

  • Animals have many specialized parts.

    - Animal cells differentiate (change) as an organism is growing and developing.

    - The cells eventually become liver cells, bone cells, and tongue cells.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

  • Animals have many specialized parts.

    - These cells form tissues, which may form organs.

http://medicalimages.allrefer.com/large/liver.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

  • Animals move.

    - There are many different ways that animals can move.

    - Animals move in search of food, mates, or shelter.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

  • Animals are consumers.

    - Animals cannot make their own food.

    - They are consumers, which means they eat other organisms.

    - Animals consume everything from other animals, plants, lichens, to even drinking blood!

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Let’s Review!

  • 1 -

    Rabbits are consumers. Describe how rabbits use food resources.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Answer

Rabbits eat plants, which give the rabbits energy for life functions.

http://www.all-creatures.org/picc/rabbit-14_small.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 1


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Animals and Behavior

What Do You Think?

What is the difference between and learned behavior and an innate behavior?

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

Animal Behavior Vocabulary

  • Innate behavior- a behavior that is influenced by genes and does not depend on learning or experience

  • Learned behavior- a behavior that has been learned from experience or observation

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

3. Migrate- to travel from one place to another

4. Hibernation- a period of inactivity and lowered body temperature that some animals experience in the winter

  • Estivation- a period of reduced activity that some animals experience in the summer.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

There are some traits among species that help to enhance the survival of those species.

Examples are:

  • Animals use many different methods to get food. Chimpanzees use sticks to get ants out of an anthill. This way they can get enough food while using the least amount of energy.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

  • Some animals use camouflage to blend into the environment.

  • Some animals can drive other animals away by using external stimuli. Skunks use chemicals as external stimuli.

http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=animal+camouflage/v=2/SID=e/l=IVR/SIG=12rpuefkp/EXP=1131649864/*-http%3A//www.harcourtschool.com/glossary/science/define/gr4/camouf4a.html

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

  • Many animals are brightly colored and use this external stimulus as warning coloration.

  • Often bright colored organisms are poisonous, and predators stay away from them.

http://www.utexas.edu/opa/pubs/oncampus/01oc_issues/oc010320/oc_snakes2.html

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

  • Hibernation, estivation, and migration help many animals survive in harsh conditions.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

  • Natureworks: Coloration

  • Natureworks: Adaptations

  • Natureworks: Migration

  • NOVA: Seeing Through Camouflage

Look Here!

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 2


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Animals and Behavior

What Do You Think?

Explain why communication among humans is so important.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

Communication is very important to an animals survival.

  • Communication is where a message travels from one animal to another, and the receiver responds in some way.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

Animals communicate in many different ways.

  • Communication helps animals live together, find food, keep away from enemies, and protect their homes.

  • Birds communicate by songs.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

Click on the link below to listen to several different bird songs.

Were you able to differentiate between fear, mating, food calls, etc…?

http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/bird_songs/

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

  • Other animals communicate through pheromones. Pheromones are chemicals given off by animals as communication signals.

http://www.medaille.edu/vmacer/120_graphic_05pheromone.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

  • Dolphins and whales communicate by complex noises and whistles. At the bottom of the page on this internet link, you can hear dolphin and whale sounds.

http://neptune.atlantis-intl.com/dolphins/sounds.html

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

  • All of these forms of communication help animals to live together, find food, keep away from enemies, and protect their homes.

  • All of these things are crucial to their survival.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Let’s Review!

- 1 -

Both wild turkeys and fireflies have traits that enhance their reproduction. Compare those traits.

http://static.flickr.com/25/54275872_21a5082e99.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Answer

  • Male wild turkeys and fireflies use visual displays to enhance reproduction.

  • Turkeys display their impressive tail and chest during the day.

  • Fireflies flash bursts of light at night to attract a mate.

http://www.arbec.com.my/fireflies/images/firefly2.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

Websites to visit:

Animal Facts

Animal Phyla Details

Natureworks: Communication

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Section 3


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Animals and Behavior

Pre-AP Extensions

  • Another way that scientists divide animal groups is by body arrangement known as symmetry.

  • Symmetry is the arrangement of an animals body parts around a central location.

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Pre-AP Extensions


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Animals and Behavior

There are three types of symmetry.

  • Radial symmetry is shaped like a wheel. There is a center point around which the body parts are arranged.

http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/animaldiversity.htm

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Pre-AP Extensions


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Animals and Behavior

2. Bilateral symmetry is when an animal could be divided down the middle and each side should be a reflection of the other.

http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/animaldiversity.htm

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Pre-AP Extensions


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Animals and Behavior

3. Asymmetrical organisms are not arranged in any particular order around a center point.

http://www.scubaheartland.com/photos/sponges.jpg

Unit 2 : Chapter 14 : Pre-AP Extensions