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DELIBERATE ATTACK. DELIBERATE ATTACK. THE OFFENSE. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OFFENSE: Surprise Concentration Tempo Audacity FORMS OF THE OFFENSE: Movement to Contact Attack Exploitation Pursuit. FM 100-5, p 7-1 thru 7-12. 3. DELIBERATE ATTACK. FORMS OF MANEUVER. ENVELOPMENT

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Presentation Transcript

The offense

DELIBERATE ATTACK

THE OFFENSE

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OFFENSE:

  • Surprise

  • Concentration

  • Tempo

  • Audacity

    FORMS OF THE OFFENSE:

  • Movement to Contact

  • Attack

  • Exploitation

  • Pursuit

FM 100-5, p 7-1 thru 7-12

3


Forms of maneuver

DELIBERATE ATTACK

FORMS OF MANEUVER

  • ENVELOPMENT

  • TURNING MOVEMENT

  • INFILTRATION

  • PENETRATION

  • FRONTAL ATTACK

FM 100-5, p 7-11 and 7-12


Sequence of an attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

SEQUENCE OF AN ATTACK

  • Reconnaissance

  • Movement to a Line of Departure

  • Maneuver

  • Deployment

  • Attack

  • Consolidation and Reorganization or Continuation

FM 71-2, p 3-4 and 3-5


Reconnaissance objectives

DELIBERATE ATTACK

RECONNAISSANCE OBJECTIVES

  • Location of obstacles

  • Enemy positions and orientations

  • Enemy intent based on his dispositions

  • Avenues of approach to exploit enemy weakness

  • Employment of enemy reserves, counterattacking forces and combat support assets

FM 71-2, p 3-19


Reconnaissance and surveillance

DELIBERATE ATTACK

RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEILLANCE

  • Planned by S2 and coordinated with the S3 and Commander

  • Derived from the Event Template

  • Collects info for the Commander

  • Intel Requirements (IR) prioritized

  • Eliminate duplication of effort

  • Systematic and continuous observation

  • Reporting and dissemination of the plan

FM 71-2 p 3-19 thru 3-22


Who conducts r s plan

DELIBERATE ATTACK

WHO CONDUCTS R&S PLAN?

  • Scouts

  • GSR

  • REMS

  • Infantry patrols

  • Tanks

  • COLT / FIST

  • Aviation

  • Assets from BDE and above

FM 71-2, p 3-20


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

CONCEPT OF OPERATION MANEUVER PLANDescribes a plan for massing firepower by the synchronization of fires and maneuver.

  • Main and supporting attacks

  • Movement from LD to final objective

  • Dictates formations and where changes occur

  • Control measures to orient force

  • Actions on the objective and the synch of the assault

FM 71-2, p 3-22 thru 3-25


Movement

FORMATIONS

Column

Wedge

Vee

Echelon

Line

Box

Diamond

TECHNIQUES

Traveling

Traveling Overwatch

Bounding Overwatch

DELIBERATE ATTACK

MOVEMENT

FM 71-2, p 3-11 thru 3-16


Movement techniques

DELIBERATE ATTACK

MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES

TRANSITION FROM TACTICAL MOVEMENT TO MANEUVER

CONTACT NOT LIKELY

CONTACT POSSIBLE

CONTACT

OBJECTIVE

CONTACT LIKELY

FIRE AND

MOVEMENT

MANEUVER

BOUNDING

OVERWATCH

ACTIONS ON CONTACT

7 FORMS

TRAVELING

TRAVELING

OVERWATCH

LOA

PL

PL

LD

PLD

FM 17-15, p 3-20 thru 3-44


7 forms of contact

DELIBERATE ATTACK

7 FORMS OF CONTACT

  • DIRECT FIRE

  • INDIRECT FIRE

  • OBSTACLES

  • AIR: FIXED, ROTARY

  • CHEMICAL

  • EW; JAMMING

  • VISUAL; OBSCURATION

  • WHAT ARE MY ACTIONS FOR EACH?

  • WHAT CAN I DO TO REDUCE THE EFFECTS?

  • WHEN AND WHERE CAN I EXPECT CONTACT?


Who leads

DELIBERATE ATTACK

WHO LEADS?

  • TANKS

  • BFVs

  • INFANTRY


Tanks

DELIBERATE ATTACK

TANKS

  • Primary Mounted Assault

  • Assaults With Infantry

  • Rapid Fire Tank Killer

  • Breach

  • Reduce Fortifications

  • Long Range Support by Fire for Assaulting Element

  • Weight in the Main Attack

  • Reserve

FM 71-2, p 3-28

FM 71-1, p 3-16

15


Bradley fighting vehicles

DELIBERATE ATTACK

BRADLEY FIGHTING VEHICLES

  • Overwatch movement of tanks

  • Provide long range/short range support by fire for assault

  • Transports infantry under protection of armor (as far as AT threat allows)

  • Assaults mounted (low AT threat)

FM 71-2, p 3-29

FM 71-1, p 3-16

16


Dismounted infantry

DELIBERATE ATTACK

DISMOUNTED INFANTRY

  • Lead in high risk restrictive terrain

  • Suppress anti-tank weapons and infantry

  • Infiltrate

  • Breach

  • Assault, clear trench lines

  • Reconnaissance / counter-reconnaissance

  • Security in SBF/ ABF and limited visibility

  • Secure key terrain

FM 71-1, p 3-16, 3-40, 3-49, 3-58 thru 3-60


The assault planning considerations

DELIBERATE ATTACK

THE ASSAULTPLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

  • Command and control (control measures)

  • The last 300 meters

  • Breaching operations

  • Actions on the Objective

  • Mounted vs. dismounted; when & where does the infantry dismount?

FM 71-2, p 3-37, 3-39 thru 3-42


When and where does the infantry dismount

DELIBERATE ATTACK

WHEN AND WHERE DOES THE INFANTRY DISMOUNT?

Prior to the OBJ

On the OBJ

Beyond the OBJ

FM 71-1, p 3-30 and 3-31

23


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

SHORT OF THE OBJECTIVE

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

  • DISMOUNTED INFANTRY ARE EXPOSED LONGER TO ENEMY SMALL ARMS AND INDIRECT FIRE AS THEY MOVE TO THE OBJECTIVE

  • SUITABLE DISMOUNT POINTS MAY BE TARGETED BY ENEMY INDIRECT FIRES

  • INFANTRY SOLDIERS ARE PROTECTED FROM SMALL ARMS

  • TROOPS CAN BE ORIENTED AS THEY APPROACH THE OBJECTIVE

  • CONTROL CAN BE ESTABLISHED AT THE DISMOUNT POINT

  • SUPPORTING ARTILLERY CAN SUPPRESS THE ENEMY WHILE THE INFANTRY IS ORGANIZING

FM 71-1, p 3-58


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

ON THE OBJECTIVE

DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

  • GREATER SPEED AND SHOCK EFFECT

  • INFANTRY REMAINS PROTECTED LONGER

  • SUPPORTING FIRES CAN CONTINUE LONGER

  • DIFFICULTY ORIENTING TROOPS

  • DIFFICULTY ESTABLISHING CONTROL AT THE DISMOUNT POINT

  • VULNERABILITY OF BFVS TO AT WEAPONS

FM 71-1, p 3-59 and 3-60


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

BEYOND THE OBJECTIVE

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

  • INFANTRY FIGHTS FROM AN AREA AND DIRECTION UNEXPECTED BY THE ENEMY

  • TROOPS ARE ORIENTED ON THE OBJECTIVE

  • CONTROL IS MORE EASILY ESTABLISHED

  • SHOCK EFFECT ON THE ENEMY IS LIKELY TO BE HIGH

  • ENEMY POSITIONS MAY BE IN DEPTH

  • SUITABLE DISMOUNT POINTS MAY BE TARGETED

  • FRATRICIDE RISK MAY BE HIGHER

  • ASSAULTING BFVS ARE VULNERABLE

FM 71-1, p 3-59


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

DISMOUNT

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

  • COVERED AND CONCEALED ROUTES TO THE DISMOUNT POINT

  • COVERED AND CONCEALED DISMOUNT POINT

  • REDUNDANT SIGNALS TO SHIFT AND LIFT FIRES FROM THE OBJECTIVE

  • RECOGNIZABLE LIMIT OF ADVANCE FOR THE DISMOUNTED ELEMENT IN ORDER TO AVOID FRATRICIDE

  • SIGNALS TO CALL THE MOUNTED SECTION FORWARD

  • REMOUNT POINTS

  • MEANS FOR DISMOUNTED ELEMENT TO MARK OR GUIDE THE MOUNTED FORCE INTO POSITION


Fratricide avoidance

DELIBERATE ATTACK

FRATRICIDE AVOIDANCE

  • Confirm adjacent unit locations and activities (not just maneuver forces)

  • Alter sectors as required to limit fires away from friendly positions

  • Establish friendly markings and signals

  • Adjust weapons control status based on friendly force and non-combatant disposition and the Rules of Engagement

FM 71-2, CH 7


Breaching operations

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Breaching Operations

Suppression

Obscuration

Security

Reduction

Assault

FM 71-1, p 3-42 thru 3-47


C2 considerations

DELIBERATE ATTACK

C2 CONSIDERATIONS

  • Positioning of Command Group

  • Positioning / Displacement of Main CP

    • Whole

    • By Echelon

  • Communications Plan

FM 71-123, p 1-43 and 1-48


Css considerations

DELIBERATE ATTACK

CSS CONSIDERATIONS

  • Trains Positioning & Employment

  • Resupply

    • Ammunition

    • Fuel

  • Maintenance Operations

  • Activation of LRP’s

  • CSS Rehearsals

FM 71-2, p 3-31 thru 3-32


Casualty evacuation considerations

DELIBERATE ATTACK

CASUALTY EVACUATION CONSIDERATIONS

  • Aid Station Positioning

    • Echeloning/Split Section

    • During Movement

    • Actions on the OBJ

  • Chemically Contaminated Casualties

  • AXPs

FM 71-2, CH 7


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Leaders fail to conduct adequate terrain analysis.

(1 of 2)

  • Discussion:

    • Observation & fields of fire do not extend to the max effective

    • ranges of weapons systems; buildings & rubble mask fires and

    • limit engagement ranges to less than 200m.

    • Dismounted AOAs are not limited to roadways.

    • Key terrain in MOUT is any location which might afford the

    • defender adequate observation and fields of fire onto likely

    • avenues of approach used by the attacking force.

    • Buildings should not be seen as obstacles to dismounted

    • movement.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Leaders fail to conduct adequate terrain analysis.

(2 of 2)

  • TTP:

    • Conduct 3D terrain analysis; up, down, and all around.

    • ID all known and likely enemy locations from which fires can be

    • placed onto the attacking force.

    • ID inter-visibility (IV) lines and dead space; analyze their effects

    • on observation & fields of fire to minimize max effective range of

    • direct fire weapons systems.

    • ID likely AOAs above ground along IV lines and through dead

    • space, through buildings, and below ground that can be used by

    • both defender and attacker alike as internal LOCs within the OBJ.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

3D terrain analysis.

13

17

16

12

11

15

14

21

31

41

22

33

42

23

33

34

43

24

25

35

36

44

37

45

46

47


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Commanders do not task-organize Light/Heavy forces to provide continuous mutual support during movement to the OBJ.

  • Discussion:

    • Ensure the unit is moving in a way that supports rapid transition

    • to maneuver.

    • Consider the movement formations necessary to move light

    • infantry with tanks.

    • Consider how the tank platoon’s battle drills will impact the light

    • infantry.

  • TTP:

    • Mount infantry on tanks; move as fast as the tactical situation will

    • permit.

    • Use the tanks thermal sights to provide early warning to the light

    • force.

    • Integrate the tanks with the infantry.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Integration of LT/HVY forces.

(OK)

TANK PLT

TASK ORGANIZED

AS A MANEUVER ELEMENT

TANK PLT

TASK ORGANIZED

UNDER PLTs AS SECTIONS

(BETTER)


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Light/heavy elements are not integrated into the scheme of maneuver.

(1 of 2)

  • Discussion:

    • Determine desired weapons effects and position assets

    • accordingly.

    • Consider use of control measures to assist in the transition to

    • other movement formations and synchronize the movement of

    • adjacent units.

  • TTP:

    • Use visual recognition signals to help the armor unit identify

    • friendly infantry as they bound forward.

    • Use graphic control measures to transition formation and

    • movement techniques during movement.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Light/heavy elements are not integrated into the scheme of maneuver.

(2 of 2)

  • TTP:

    • Armor units must understand the direct fire support an infantry

    • unit can provide without overextending his distance to the light

    • infantry.

    • The light infantry must be aware of the tanks main gun and .50

    • caliber machine gun ranges so they do not mask tank fire.

    • Use the armor to eliminate the most serious direct fire threats.


Deliberate attack

(-)

FO

FO

(ASLT)

(BREACH)

(SUPPORT)

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Task organized & integrated into scheme of maneuver.

PL

YELLOW

(PLD)

PL

RED

PL

BLUE

LD

ABF1

FO

OBJ

(-)

FO

ASLT

PSN

ABF2

(TRAVELING)

(TRAVELING

O/W)

(BOUNDING

O/W)


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Detailed direct fire control plans are not developed.

  • Discussion:

    • Task organizing into separate support, breach, and assault

    • elements introduces an element of decentralization.

    • Control measures must be established to synchronize elements

    • to produce the desired effect--kill the enemy as quickly and with

    • as few resources as possible.

  • TTP:

    • Use attack guidance matrix to control rate and distribution of fires

    • on the OBJ.

    • Rate of fire, duration (in minutes), method of control, engagement

    • criteria, and engagement priorities must be specified for all

    • weapon systems.

    • Specify the desired endstate for each weapon system; link

    • changes in the direct fire engagement plan to key events.

    • Rehearse the direct fire plan.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Direct fire control execution matrix.

WHO ENGAGE TGT CTRL START STOP ENDSTATE

CRITERIA PRIORITIES METHOD

LEAD T72

@ TRP 2;

CRP ONLY

T72, BMP2,

BRDM; FRONT-

REAR

IMMEDIATE

2X VEHs

ENGAGED

CRP DESTROYED

@ PL RED

TOW

DECENTRALIZED

LEAD BMP2

@ TRP 2;

CRP ONLY

BMP2, T72

BRDM; REAR-

FRONT

2X VEHs

ENGAGED

CRP DESTROYED

@ PL RED

JAVELIN

IMMEDIATE

DECENTRALIZED

LEAD BMP2

@ TRP 1;

CRP ONLY

BMP2, BRDM2;

INSIDE-OUT

NO PAX

DISMOUNT SOUTH

PL RED

M2

O/O=G/S/C

O/O=R/S/C

CENTRALIZED

BMP2 OR

BRDM

PEN OF PL

RED

DISMOUNTS

DESTROYED

BETWEEN

PL RED & BLUE

BRDM2,

DISMOUNTS

CENTRALIZED

O/O=W/S/C

O/O=R/S/C

M240

DISMOUNTS

DESTROYED

BETWEEN

PL BLUE &

NO PEN LINE

PAX

DISMOUNT

SOUTH PL

BLUE

DISMOUNTS

ONLY

O/O=R/S/C

M249

CENTRALIZED

SL TRACER


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Rehearsals are not conducted for the 7 forms of contact.

  • Discussion:

    • Contact can be categorized as one of seven types: DF, IDF,

    • obstacles, air, chemical, EW, and visual.

    • Units have a good understanding of the DF threat awaiting them

    • on the OBJ; they habitually fail to incorporate the other six forms

    • of contact into rehearsals, particularly during movement to the

    • OBJ.

  • TTP:

    • Conduct rehearsals on all seven forms of contact for each phase

    • of the operation: recon, movement, maneuver, deployment,

    • attack, and C&R


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Rehearsal format.

(1 of 4)

ORDERS: Task & Purpose 2 levels up & 1 level down; what is my battalion doing,

what am I doing, and what are my PLTs doing.

The BN task is to clear enemy forces in zone; purpose is

to allow ME, Tm HVY, to pass through the security zone

during the attack without becoming decisively engaged.

I am the BN NE; my task is to clear enemy forces in zone

Of attack Bravo; my purpose is to prevent the enemy from

interfering with Tm HVY’s eastern flank during the attack.

I have task organized into 3 PLTs for this phase: 1 PLT,

the Co. ME, will clear enemy forces in zone of attack Bravo

IOT protect Tm HVY’s eastern flank during the attack. 2 PLT(+),

w/ an AT sec attached, will screen along the eastern

flank of 1 PLT IOT provide early warning of enemy activity

that would interfere with their attack to clear zone Bravo.

3 PLT will follow & support the ME PLT.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Rehearsal format.

(2 of 4)

ACTIONS: What are the actions of each of my BOS elements. Include actions

for each of the seven forms of contact.

INTEL: Co. AT will be moving forward of the ME along axis

steel.

MANEUVER: During movement from PL RED to PL WHITE the

company will move in column formation using the traveling

overwatch technique. My PLTs will travel in sedges, with

Squads in column and fire TMs in sedges. The lead PLT in

the OOM will be the ME, 1st PLT; they will travel using

bounding overwatch. 2nd & 3rd PLTs will use the traveling

overwatch technique. Visual contact is direct fire contact.

We will immediately fight through, attempting to fix the

enemy with our 60mm MTRs and direct fires. If we cannot

destroy the enemy with maneuver, then we will bypass; we

cannot become decisively engaged. Targets that are bypassed

will be targeted w/ 105mm IDF. Where we find obstacles we

will conduct in-stride breaches using our attached EN SQD.

Obstacles that can’t be breached will be marked and the

location reported to BN via BN CMD net immediately. Contact

w/ AIR is unlikely; we will take passive measures to avoid

detection, then continue movement. If our radio net is

jammed we will immediately go to strike 2 IAW the BN TACSOP.

The enemy has no NBC capability.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Rehearsal format.

(3 of 4)

ACTIONS: (Cont’d).

FIRE SUPPORT: MTRs IPRTF at FP1, PB254685; AOF 6200.

AIR DEFENSE: Passive measures only.

M/C/S: PRI of effort is mobility. My attached EN SQD

will travel w/ the main effort to breach obstacles where

possible, or ID and mark bypass routes.

CSS: Casualties enroute will be evacuated to AXP @

FP1 by 3 PLT. HLZ will be marked and secured at that

location by the MTR sec element.

C2: I will travel with the ME PLT.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Rehearsal format.

(4 of 4)

OUTCOMES: How do I want to look at the end of this phase with respect

to enemy forces, friendly forces, and terrain.

At the end of this phase I will have cleared all

enemy forces in my zone of attack between the LD and PL RED,

have my PLTs arrayed two up, one back along PL RED w/

2 PLT(+) screening the right flank of the Co. ME, MTRs IPRTF

at FP2, retained at least 95% CBT PWR and am prepared to

continue movement north.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Objectives are not isolated from the effects of the enemy’s direct fire weapons.

  • Discussion:

    • Effects of enemy weapon systems do not respect friendly unit

    • boundaries.

    • 70% of casualties in MOUT are sustained during movement

    • between buildings from locations adjacent to the unit’s

    • immediate OBJ.

    • Conduct 3D terrain analysis to ID likely enemy weapons locations

    • that can affect movement to the OBJ.

  • TTP:

    • Establish overwatch positions from which both known and likely

    • enemy locations can be suppressed prior to movement between

    • buildings.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

1st & 3rd platoons isolate building 35.

13

17

16

12

11

15

14

21

31

41

22

33

42

23

SBF1

33

24

43

36

25

35

3 B

SBF2

36

44

37

1 B

45

47

46


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: The majority of casualties occurs outside during movement between buildings.

  • Discussion:

    • 75% of casualties in MOUT are sustained during movement

    • between buildings.

    • Don’t cross the fine line between ‘stacking’ and bunching up.

    • Consider the pros and cons of movement through vs. around

    • buildings.

  • TTP:

    • Use weapons to isolate the OBJ from the effects of the enemy’s

    • direct fires by positioning to engage known and suspected

    • enemy locations to the flanks and rear of the PLT’s immediate

    • OBJ.

    • Minimize IDF losses by moving through buildings whenever

    • possible.

    • Use smoke to obscure movement between buildings.

    • Remember the golden rule: “If you’re not doing anything, don’t do

    • it outside.”


Deliberate attack

2 A

3 A

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Use of buildings as Obstacles vs. Avenues of Approach.

13

17

16

12

11

15

14

LOA

LOA

21

31

41

22

33

OBJ

GOLD

OBJ

TIN

42

23

33

34

24

43

36

25

35

  • MOVEMENT AROUND

  • BLDGs

  • BUNCHING UP

  • OUTSIDE

36

  • RAPID MOVEMENT

  • BETWEEN BLDGs

  • DELIBERATE MOVEMENT

  • THROUGH BLDGS

44

37

45

ASLT

PSN

47

46


Deliberate attack

2 C

DELIBERATE ATTACK

1st PLT protects AOA for movement between

buildings 31 & 32.

22

13

17

SMOKE

12

15

OBJ

LEAD

SBF2

SBF3

31

41

22

1 C

SBF1

42

23

AOA


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: 70% of platoons end up fighting in a building other than the one which they had planned to assault.

  • Discussion:

    • The casualty intensive nature of MOUT necessitates tactical

    • flexibility on the part of junior leaders; platoons and squads often

    • assault buildings which they had not prepared to enter and

    • execute tasks which they have not rehearsed.

  • TTP:

    • Clearly communicate leader’s intent down to the lowest level.

    • Initiate generic, MOUT specific rehearsals at squad and platoon

    • level immediately upon receipt of the warning order; rehearsals

    • should include the support, breach and assault functions.

    • Conduct combined arms rehearsal down to the lowest level.


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Breach fundamentals are not followed when entering a building.

  • Discussion:

    • Forcibly entering a building requires a successful breach of the

    • enemy’s defenses.

  • TTP:

    • Follow the steps outlined in the acronym SOSR.


Deliberate attack

22

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Setting conditions; a step-by-step method to movement between buildings.

SMOKE

13

17

12

15

SBF2

OBJ

LEAD

SBF3

31

41

22

3 C

2 C

SBF1

42

AOA

23

  • ID ENTRY POINT

  • SELECT AOA FROM ASLT PSN TO ENTRY POINT

  • LOCATE PSNs ALONG AOA THAT CROSS OPEN AREAS & STREETS

  • ID BLDGs THAT OFFER GOOD FIELDS OF FIRE ONTO OPEN AREAS

  • ASSIGN SECTORS OF FIRE AGAINST ALL LIKELY ENEMY LOCATIONS

  • BREACH w/ STAND-OFF MUNITIONS

  • EMPLACE SMOKE & SUPPRESS ALL LIKELY ENEMY LOCATIONS

  • ASLT SQD LDR CONDUCTS ASLT BREACH IF REQUIRED; SECURES FOOTHOLD

  • KEY LDR CONTRLS MOVEMENT OF FOLLOW-0N FORCES


Deliberate attack

DELIBERATE ATTACK

Observation: Snipers are not task organized and employed effectively at the company level.

  • Discussion:

    • Control is degraded by restrictive terrain in MOUT.

    • Position in buildings of stone, masonry, or concrete construction.

    • Avoid positioning in top floors of buildings likely to be penetrated

    • by fragmentation effects of IDF, and obvious locations such as

    • steeples and rooftops.

  • TTP:

    • Consider giving sniper teams the discretion to operate freely

    • throughout the AO, consistent with the ROE and the

    • commander’s attack guidance matrix.

    • Employ along the flanks and forward of the attacking force to

    • deny the enemy use of internal LOCs with long range, precision

    • fires.

    • Use to provide terminal guidance for IDF during isolation of the

    • company’s OBJ.