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The Italian experience in the control of Avian Influenza applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination. Luca Busani Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie. The AI challenge in Italy.

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The Italian experience in the control of Avian Influenza applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

Luca Busani

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie


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The AI challenge in Italy applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

  • High density of susceptible species (turkeys) in a limited area (Densely Populated Poultry Area-DPPA)

  • Wetlands and resting sites for migratory waterfowl in close proximity of this DPPA

  • Several introductions of LPAI viruses from wild birds resulting in some cases in major epidemics


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ITALY - applying emergency and prophylactic vaccinationVENETO AND LOMBARDY

Distribution of poultry holdings

Mallard population in Italy:

110,000 birds/year

@ 3.300 poultry holdings

@ 95 million bird places


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Italy: AI outbreaks from 1997 to 2005 applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

  • 1997-1998 HPAI: H5N2 8 outbreaks, backyard flocks, prompt eradication

  • 2000 LPAI-HPAI: H7N1, total costs € 500 million

  • 2000-2001 LPAI: H7N1 78 outbreaks

  • 2002-2003 LPAI: H7N3 388 outbreaks

  • 2004 LPAI: H7N3 28 outbreaks (September-November)

  • 2005 LPAI: H5N2 15 outbreaks (April-May)

Total direct costs: 170 million euros


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LPAI: prevention control strategies applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

  • Increase of farms bio-security level

  • Prompt detection of any AI virus introduction in:

    • Poultry

    • Wild birds

  • Vaccination (H5–H7 virus subtypes)

  • Reduction of farm density, mainly turkey farms (long term strategy)


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More than 1000 farms applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

More than 31 million birds

Veneto

Lombardia

VACCINATION AREA


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Vaccination: data management system applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

Reports to decision makers

Laboratory data

Poultry populations data

Central data collection and analysis

Monitoring activity

Poultry vaccination data


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Numbers of vaccination in Italy (2000-2006) applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

Vaccination-related costs: 35 million €

payed by the farmers


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Weekly incidence rate of LPAI H7N3 outbreaks applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

From 31/12/02 vaccination of turkeys (H7N1)

R0=3.0

IC (2.3- 3.9)

R0=0.6

IC (0.5-0.7)


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LPAI epidemics and vaccination in Italy applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

  • emergency vaccination

  • preventative vaccination

  • c,d) poor adherence to the vaccination protocol

  • c) 17 flocks vaccinated only once or twice, instead of three times as scheduled;

  • d) all flocks vaccinated only once


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Conclusions I applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

  • Emergency and prophylactic AI vaccination can reduce financial losses due to AI epidemics

  • In order to maintain trade, vaccination must be coupled with monitoring and aimed at eradication

  • Wild birds and backyard flocks must be included in the monitoring programs

  • The problems related to AI vaccines and vaccination must be considered when intervention is planned


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Conclusion II applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

  • Control of AI in DPPAs requires a coordinated territorial strategy including surveillance, early detection and prompt intervention and vaccination should be part of it

  • This strategy must be adapted to the field conditions

  • It requires dedicated resources

  • The sustainability in the long period is the major drawback


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Grazie per l’attenzione… applying emergency and prophylactic vaccination

Luca Busani Istituto Zooprofilattico delle Venezie – CREVcrev.lbusani@izsvenezie.itStefano Marangon Istituto Zooprofilattico delle Veneziesmarangon@izsvenezie.it