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Intelligence theory and testing Lecture overview. Finish theories of intelligence History context of intelligence tests Examples of intelligence tests Bias and intelligence testing Summary. Louis Thurston 7 Primary Mental Abilities . 1. Verbal Comprehension 2. Word fluency 3. Number

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Intelligence theory and testingLecture overview

  • Finish theories of intelligence

  • History context of intelligence tests

  • Examples of intelligence tests

  • Bias and intelligence testing

  • Summary


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Louis Thurston7 Primary Mental Abilities

1. Verbal Comprehension

2. Word fluency

3. Number

4. Space

5. Associative Memory

6. Perceptual Speed

7. Reasoning


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Raymond B. CattellFluid & Crystallized Intelligences

  • Factor analytic model

  • Fluid intelligence – primary reasoning ability

    • Tests that are non-verbal tests, culture free, and independent of instruction

  • Crystallized intelligence – factual knowledge

    • mazes, memory tests, matrices


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Raven Matrices Test

  • Which piece is missing?

    • Tests non-verbal reasoning


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Verbal Analogy Problems

  • SOON is to NEVER as NEAR is to

    • NOT FAR

    • SELDOM

    • NOWHERE

    • WIDELY


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Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

  • Linguistic

  • Musical

  • Logical-mathematical

  • Naturalist

  • Spatial

  • Bodily-kinesthetic

  • Intrapersonal

  • Interpersonal


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Alfred Binet

  • French psychologist

  • In 1905 Binet and Theodore Simon produced the Binet-Simon Scale

    • The first intelligence test.

  • Developed the test in 1904 for the Ministry of Public Education in Paris

    • To identify primary school children whose lack of success in normal classrooms suggested the need for some form of special education


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Lewis Terman

  • Refined the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test

  • Developed the Stanford-Binet

  • Ripe-Early Rot Myth & Terman’s Termintes


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William Stern

  • German psychologist

  • Studied children's scores on Binet’s test

  • Developed the idea of the Intelligence quotient in 1912

IQ= Mental Age X 100

Chronological Age


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Robert Yerkes

  • Introduced intelligence testing to the military

    • Alpha test

    • Beta test

  • Following group testing in World War I, a flood of tests which imitated the army tests were initiated.

  • After the war, industry, business, and education saw the potential value of psychological testing


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David Wechler

  • American Psychologist

  • Worked at Bellevue Hospital in NY City

  • Developed an IQ test for adults

    • WAIS

  • Developed a scale for children

    • WISC

  • Developed a scale for Preschool and Primary School children

    • WPPSI


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Verbal

Information

Comprehension

Arithmetic

Similarities

Digit span

Vocabulary

Performance

Digit symbol

Picture completion

Block design

Picture arrangement

Object assembly

WAIS – III Subscales


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StandardDeviation

-4 to -3

-3 to -2

-2 to -1

-1 to 0

0 to +1

+1 to +2

+2 to +3

+3 to +4

 IQ

 40 to 55

55 to 70

70 to 85

85 to 100

100 to 115

115 to 130

130 to 145

145 to 160

 Percent of Population

 0.13%

2.14%

13.59%

34.13%

34.13%

13.59%

2.14%

0.13%

 Percent of Population

2.27% in the Mentally Impaired Range

13.59% Borderline

68.26% in the Average range

13.59% High Average

2.27% in the "Gifted" range

The distribution of IQ scores in the general population



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Bias in intelligence testing

Potential for:

  • Cultural biases

    • Test items

    • Normative biases

    • Testing situations


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Summary

  • Individual differences is a cornerstone of modern psychology

  • Intelligence is an important example of individual differences

  • The major players in the development of intelligence testing and knowledge used:

    • Pragmatic need for testing; and

    • Factor analysis

  • - The major players can be divided into:

    • Those who believe in one intelligence

    • Those who believe in multiple intelligences